Other known risk factors include:

  • unplanned/unwanted pregnancy

  • history of trauma (sexual abuse has strong correlations)

  • infertility

  • lack of healthy attachment as a child; adverse childhood experiences

  • intimate partner violence

  • difficult pregnancy, labor or delivery

  • loss (recent or unresolved; including pregnancy/infant loss

  • lack of support; feelings of isolation

  • unmet expectations (can be related to breastfeeding, relationship changes, role changes)

  • certain personality traits: "perfectionist/type A"

  • Stressors: relationship strain/financial strain/loss of job

  • Adoption difficulties/adjustment

Primary risk factors include:

  • The dramatic change in hormone levels during pregnancy and after delivery.

  • Personal or family history of depression, anxiety, Bipolar disorders.

  • Sleep interruptions & deprivation

  • Changes in thyroid functioning

Perinatal mental illnesses don't discriminate. They are experienced across gender, age, culture, income and education level.

1 in 5 women & 1 in 10 men.